Working principle of Magnetic flowmeter

When an electrical conductor moves perpendicular to a magnetic field, a voltage is induced in that conductor perpendicular to both the magnetic flux lines and the direction of motion. This phenomenon is known as electromagnetic induction, and it is the basic principle upon which all electro-mechanical generators operate....
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Radiation type level measurement

Certain types of nuclear radiation easily penetrates the walls of industrial vessels, but is attenuated by traveling through the bulk of material stored within those vessels. By placing a radioactive source on one side of the vessel and measuring the radiation making it through to the other...
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Capacitive level measurement

Capacitive level instruments measure electrical capacitance of a conductive rod inserted vertically into a process vessel. As process level increases, capacitance increases between the rod and the vessel walls, causing the instrument to output a greater signal. The basic principle behind capacitive level instruments is the capacitance...
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Magnetostrictive level measurement

A variation on the theme of echo-based level instruments, where the level of some process material in a vessel is measured by timing the travel of a wave between the instrument and the material interface, is one applied to float-type instruments: magnetostriction. In a magnetostrictive level instrument,...
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Ultrasonic level measurement

Ultrasonic level instruments measure the distance from the transmitter (located at some high point) to the surface of a process material located farther below using reflected sound waves. The frequency of these waves extend beyond the range of human hearing, which is why they are called ultrasonic. The...
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Bubbler systems

An interesting variation on this theme of direct hydrostatic pressure measurement is the use of a purge gas to measure hydrostatic pressure in a liquid-containing vessel. This eliminates the need for direct contact of the process liquid against the pressure-sensing element, which can be advantageous if the process...
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Pressure of fluid column

A vertical column of fluid exerts a pressure due to the column’s weight. The relationship between column height and fluid pressure at the bottom of the column is constant for any particular fluid (density) regardless of vessel width or shape. This principle makes it possible to infer...
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