Category Archives: Instrumentation

Instrumentation is the art and science of measurement and control of process variables within a production, laboratory, or manufacturing area. An instrument is a device that measures a physical quantity such as flow, temperature, level, distance, angle, or pressure. Instruments may be as simple as direct reading thermometer  or may be complex multi-variable process analyzers. Instruments are often part of a control system in refineries, factories, and vehicles.

Paramagnetic O2 / Oxygen Analyzer

This utilizes the fact that Oxygen is a paramagnetic gas which distinguishes oxygen from other gases because it is attracted into a strong magnetic field. Basically when a gas sample is introduce to the instrument the oxygen will be drawn into the magnetic field resulting in a change in the flow rate. The flow rate change is proportional… Read More »

Zirconia O2 Measurment Principle

There are two different types of Zirconia measurement systems. 1      amperometric 2      potentiometric Figure shows a schematic of the amperometric system. An amperometric sensor consists of  zirconia cell that has a high voltage being applied across the two platinum electrodes. Oxygen then flows through  the diffusion hole and comes into contact with the cathode… Read More »

How to downlaod and upload program in siemens S7

First Creat a New Project :-  Go to Start > Create new project > fill the detail like project name, path, comment etc…     After that click on configure network      Here we can check accessible devices    Now click on online   Online > Upload device as new station (Hardware and Software)… Read More »

What is Steam Traps ?

Steam trap is a type of automatic valve that filters out condensate (i.e. condensed steam) and non-condensable gases such as air without letting steam escape. If condensate is not drained immediately or trapped from the system, it reduces operating efficiency by slowing the heat transfer process and can cause physical damage through the phenomenon known… Read More »


The Py-Gas is an online sample conditionerdesigned for difficult sample conditioning situations such as the following. • Hot and dirty gases • Pyrolysis gases • Liquid mists or water removal • Wet, dirty gases • Heavy particulate removal • Fine carbon removal The initial sample problem addressed by the Py-Gas was in gas/liquid feedstock for a… Read More »

Venturi Tube Principle

flow element used to create a pressure change by accelerating a fluid stream is the venturi tube: a pipe purposefully narrowed to create a region of low pressure. As shown previously, venturi tubes are not the only structure capable of producing a flow-dependent pressure drop. You should keep this in mind as we proceed to derive equations relating… Read More »


IP- Ingress protection classifies and rates the degree of protection provided against intrusion, dust, accidental contact, and water by mechanical casings and electrical enclosures. It followed by two or three digits. 1st Number  0 No special protection.                                              … Read More »

Servo Gauge Tank Level Measurement

Tank gauging system is based on the principle of displacement measurement. A small displacer is accurately positioned in the liquid medium using a servo motor. The displacer is suspended on a measuring wire that is wound onto a finely grooved drum housing within the instrument. The drum is driven via coupling magnets, which are completely separated by the drum housing.… Read More »