Category Archives: Analytical Instruments

Analytical instruments are those which are used to calculate the exact proportion in which the various constituents are present in a substance.

Paramagnetic O2 / Oxygen Analyzer

This utilizes the fact that Oxygen is a paramagnetic gas which distinguishes oxygen from other gases because it is attracted into a strong magnetic field. Basically when a gas sample is introduce to the instrument the oxygen will be drawn into the magnetic field resulting in a change in the flow rate. The flow rate change is proportional… Read More »

Zirconia O2 Measurment Principle

There are two different types of Zirconia measurement systems. 1      amperometric 2      potentiometric Figure shows a schematic of the amperometric system. An amperometric sensor consists of  zirconia cell that has a high voltage being applied across the two platinum electrodes. Oxygen then flows through  the diffusion hole and comes into contact with the cathode… Read More »


The Py-Gas is an online sample conditionerdesigned for difficult sample conditioning situations such as the following. • Hot and dirty gases • Pyrolysis gases • Liquid mists or water removal • Wet, dirty gases • Heavy particulate removal • Fine carbon removal The initial sample problem addressed by the Py-Gas was in gas/liquid feedstock for a… Read More »

Leakage detectioon system for cooling tower

If water enters an oxygen lance from a leak in the cooling system, the results can be  catastrophic. Why take the risk, when simple means exist to avoid it. Endress+Hauser’s highly accurate leakage detection system, designed to IEC 61511 and EN ISO 13849-1, detects the slightest signs of a leak, so that action can be… Read More »

Electrodeless conductivity probes

An entirely different design of conductivity cell called electrodeless uses electromagnetic induction rather than direct electrical contact to detect the conductivity of the liquid solution. This cell design enjoys the distinct advantage of virtual immunity to fouling, since there is no direct electrical contact between the measurement circuit and the liquid solution. Instead of using two or four… Read More »