The root cause of the problem – a varying pressure drop caused by frictional losses in the piping and other factors – generally cannot be eliminated. This means there is no way to regain maximum flow capacity short of replacing the control valve with one having a greater Cv rating. However, there is a clever way to flatten the valve’s responsiveness to achieve a more linear characteristic, and that is to purposely design the valve such that its inherent characteristic complements the process “distortion” caused by changing pressure drop. In other words, we design the control valve trim so it opens up gradually during the initial stem travel (near the closed position), then opens up more rapidly during the final stages of stem travel (near the full-open position). With the valve made to open up in a nonlinear fashion inverse to the “droop” caused by the installed pressure changes, the two non-linearities should cancel each other and yield a more linear response.
This re-design will give the valve a nonlinear characteristic when tested in the laboratory withconstant pressure drop, but the installed behavior should be more linear:
Now, control system response will be consistent at all points within the controlled flow range, which is a significant improvement over the original state of affairs.
Control valve trim is manufactured in a variety of different “characteristics” to provide the desired installed behavior. The two most common inherent characteristics are linear and equal percentage. “Linear” valve trim exhibits a fairly proportional relationship between valve stem travel and flow capacity (Cv), while “equal percentage” trim is decidedly nonlinear. A control valve with “linear” trim will exhibit consistent responsiveness only with a constant pressure drop, while “equal percentage” trim is designed to counter-act the “droop” caused by changing pressure drop when installed in a process system.
Another common inherent valve characteristic available from manufacturers is quick-opening, where the valve’s Cv increases dramatically during the initial stages of opening, but then increases at a much slower rate for the rest of the travel. Quick-opening valves are often used in pressure-relief applications, where it is important to rapidly establish flow rate during the initial portions of valve stem travel.
The standard comparison of quick-opening, linear, and equal-percentage valve characteristics usually looks something like the following graph:
A graph showing valve characteristics taken from actual manufacturers’ data on valve performance shows a more moderate picture.
Different valve characterizations may be achieved by re-shaping the valve trim. For instance, the plug profiles of a single-ported, stem-guided globe valve may be modified to achieve the common quick-opening, linear, and equal-percentage characteristics:
Photographs of linear (left) and equal-percentage (right) globe valve plugs are shown side-by-side for comparison:
Cage-guided globe valve trim characteristic is a function of port shape. As the plug rises up, the amount of port area uncovered determines the shape of the characteristic graph:
Ball valve trim characteristic is a function of notch shape. As the ball rotates, the amount of notch area opened to the fluid determines the shape of the characteristic graph. All valve trim in the following illustration is shown approximately half-open (50% stem rotation):
A different approach to valve characterization is to use a non-linear positioner function instead of a non-linear trim. That is, by “programming” a valve positioner to respond in a characterized fashion to command signals, it is possible to make an inherently linear valve behave as though it were quick-opening, equal-percentage, or anywhere in between. All the positioner does is modify the valve stem position as per the desired characteristic function instead of proportionally follow the signal as it normally would.
This approach has the distinct advantage of convenience (especially if the valve is already equipped with a positioner) over changing the actual valve trim. However, if valve stem friction ever becomes a problem, its effects will be disproportionate along the valve travel range, as the positioner must position the valve more precisely in some areas of travel than others when pressed into service as a characterizer.