A simple force-balance pneumatic valve positioner design appears in the following illustration:
The control signal for this valve is a 3 to 15 PSI pneumatic signal, coming from either an I/P transducer or a pneumatic controller (neither one shown in the illustration). This control signal pressure applies an upward force on the force beam, such that the baffle tries to approach the nozzle. Increasing backpressure in the nozzle causes the pneumatic amplifying relay to output a greater air pressure to the valve actuator, which in turn lifts the valve stem up (opening up the valve). As the valve stem lifts up, the spring connecting the force beam to the valve stem becomes further stretched, applying additional force to the right-hand side of the force beam. When this additional force balances the bellows’ force, the system stabilizes at a new equilibrium. Like all force-balance systems, the force beam motion is greatly constrained by the balancing forces, such that its motion is negligible for all practical purposes. In the end, equilibrium is achieved by one force balancing another, like two teams of people pulling oppositely on a length of rope: so long as the two teams’ forces remain equal in magnitude and opposite in direction, the rope will not deviate from its original position.
The following photograph shows a PMV model 1500 force-balance positioner used to position a rotary valve actuator, with the cover on (left) and removed (right):
The 3-15 PSI pneumatic control signal enters into the bellows, which pushes downward on the horizontal force beam. A pneumatic pilot valve assembly at the left-hand side of the force beam detects any motion, increasing air pressure to the valve actuating diaphragm if any downward motion is detected and releasing air pressure from the actuator if any upward motion is detected:
As compressed air is admitted to the valve actuator by this pilot valve assembly, the rotary valve will begin to rotate open. The shaft’s rotary motion is converted into a linear motion inside the positioner by means of a cam: a disk with an irregular radius designed to produce linear displacement from angular displacement:
A roller-tipped follower at the end of another beam rides along the cam’s circumference. Beam motion caused by the cam is translated into linear force by the compression of a coil spring directly against the force of the pneumatic bellows on the force beam. When the cam moves far enough to compress the spring enough to balance the additional force generated by the bellows, the force beam return to its equilibrium position (very nearly where it began) and the valve will stop moving. Even though the cam and follower in this positioner mechanism actually do move with valve stem motion, it is still considered a force-balance mechanism because the beam connected to the pilot valve does not move appreciably. The pilot valve always comes to rest at its equilibrium position through a balancing of forces on the beam.