Hydraulic system

Given the ability of pressurized fluids to transmit force over long distances, it is not surprising that many practical “fluid power systems” have been built using fluid as a mechanical power-conducting media. Fluid systems may be broadly grouped into pneumatic (gas, usually air) and hydraulic (liquid, usually oil)....
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2 wire transmitter current loop

It is possible to convey electrical power and communicate analog information over the same two wires using 4 to 20 milliamps DC, if we design the transmitter to be loop-powered. A loop-powered transmitter connects to a process controller in the following manner: Here, the transmitter...
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Volumetric flow calculations

we may derive a relatively simple equation for predicting flow through a fluid-accelerating element given the pressure drop generated by that element and the density of the fluid flowing through it: This equation is a simplified version of the one derived from the physical construction of a...
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Rotameters

The simplest example of a variable-area flowmeter is the rotameter, which uses a solid object (called a plummet or float) as a flow indicator, suspended in the midst of a tapered tube: As fluid flows upward through the tube, a pressure differential develops across the plummet....
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4-wire Transmitter current loop

DC electric current signals may also be used to communicate process measurement information from transmitters to controllers, indicators, recorders, alarms, and other input devices. Recall that the purpose of a transmitter is to sense some physical variable (e.g. pressure, temperature, flow) and then report that...
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Concentrating Pyrometers

A time-honored design for non-contact pyrometers is to concentrate incident light from a heated object onto a small temperature-sensing element. A rise in temperature at the sensor reveals the intensity of the infrared optical energy falling upon it, which as discussed previously is a function...
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Investment call

View point -Welspun Corp (CMP Rs 116): Strong growth in pipeline Global leadership in pipes, de-risks from domestic slowdown: Welspun Corp Ltd (WCL) is a leading global manufacturer of the large diameter steel pipes with around 10% market share. It has the largest capacity of...
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